Moscow has recorded its heaviest November snowfall for half a century with a 24-hour snowstorm that has blanketed the city in more than four inches of cover.
Officials in the Russian capital have called in 12,000 snow-removal vehicles to help combat the effects of the snow on the city's transport system but, in spite of lengthy efforts to minimise disruption, traffic jams have been reported to stretch back several kilometres on Moscow's roads.
"I was speaking with the forecasters, and it's been more than 50 years since Moscow's seen something like this," said Deputy Mayor Pyotr Biryukov on a television interview.
Further to gridlock in the city, flights from Moscow's airports have also faced major delays overnight. The capital's largest airport, Domodedovo, experienced over 70 flight delays, but was back to regular service by 5 a.m.
Earlier this year, Moscow recorded near-record conditions when temperatures reached -19.3F (-28.5C) on February 13. The cold Siberian air struck large parts of Eastern Europe and regions were on the verge of a gas shortage when Gazprom struggled to meet the surge in demand.
Weather reports suggest that the levels of snowfall for the last 24-hours would normally be expected over a third of a typical November month.
Bulldozers will continue to operate around the city as the snowstorm is expected to continue until Friday morning.